factor affecting cost of capital: Factors Affecting Capital Structure: Top 32 Factors

equity shareholders

The higher the factor affecting cost of capital costs, the greater will be the business risk and vice versa. For example, higher fixed costs tend to result in wider variations to operating income from numerous factors- increased competition, slower economic growth and so on. Also, as management approaches the market for large amounts of capital relative to the firm’s size, the investors require a higher rate of return. This is because the suppliers of capital become hesitant to grant relatively large sums without evidence of management’s capability to absorb this capital into the business.


https://1investing.in/ in countries other than the home country has a bearing on their exchange rate risk. Economic boom and recession also play a very important role in determining the cost of capital by impacting the interest rates in the market. All capital providers try to invest in a manner that maximizes returns. At the minimum, an investment should beat inflation, and there should be some real income.

Factors Affecting Capital Structure: Top 32 Factors

Many companies use a combination of debt and equity to finance business expansion. For such companies, the overall cost of capital is derived from the weighted average cost of all capital sources. As tax ratesincrease, the cost of debt decreases, decreasing the cost of capital. According to this approach, the cost of equity shares may be decided on the basis of yields actually realised over the period of past few years which may be expected to be continued in future also. This approach basically considers the D/P + G approach, but instead of considering the future expectations of dividends and growth factor, the actual yields in the past are considered. It is influenced largely by the amount of fixed costs that are incurred by a firm.

  • For calculating the cost of this type of debt-capital, the amount of interest payable on it is divided by the net proceeds from its issue.
  • The banks get their compensation in the form of interest on their capital.
  • The firm must pay dividends to preferred shareholders, fixed-rate interest to debenture holders, and loan principal and interest.
  • This is because adding debt will increase the default risk – and thus the interest rate that the corporate must pay to be able to borrow cash.
  • This growth rate indicates the amount of money a company will continue to pay out to investors holding preferred shares.

Indirectly, it signals the investors to switch their capital to better investments. If they remain invested in the company, there are chances that they may not earn their required rate of return. Federal budget deficit and surplus also have a role to play in deciding the cost of capital in the market. In a surplus situation, Fed would buy Treasury securities from the market, and that will reduce the interest rates. On the contrary, in a deficit situation, Fed would sell Treasury securities or mint money.

Beta is used in the CAPM formula to estimate risk, and the formula would require a public company’s own stock beta. For private companies, a beta is estimated based on the average beta among a group of similar public companies. Analysts may refine this beta by calculating it on an after-tax basis.

If the risk-free interest rate was 2% and the default premium for the firm’s debt was 1%, then the interest rate used to calculate the firm’s WACC was 3%. If the Fed raises rates to 2.5% and the firm’s default premium remains 1%, the interest rate used for the WACC would rise to 3.5%. When deciding on its risk appetite for each category of risk in its capital structure plan, the board of directors should consider the risk capacity of the company. This includes the amount and type of risk it is able to support in pursuit of its business objectives, taking into account its capital structure and access to financial markets. If control of the firm has to be in few hands, then low proportion of capital should be raised by issue of equity capital and a larger portion of capital should be raised through issue of debt.

If there are a lot of production opportunities in the market, more and more entrepreneurs will explore those opportunities to create profitable ventures. Entrepreneurs, then, would require capital to implement their business ideas. So, the cost of capital is directly related to the market opportunities available in the market.

How is the weighted average cost of a business calculated?

May be defined as the minimum rate of return that a firm must earn on the equity financed portion of an investment project in order to leave unchanged the market price of the share. The level of interest rates will affect the cost of debt and, potentially, the cost of equity. For example, when interest rates increase the cost of debt increases, which increases the cost of capital.

Public offerings should be made at a time when the state of the economy, as well as the capital market is ideal to provide the funds. The monetary and fiscal policies that are pursued by the government are also important in this regard. Therefore, the growing firms usually depend on equity capital and retained earnings, for their long term funds. But a reputed company and an established one have relative flexibility in designing its capital structure, because funds are available for these firms on easy terms and conditions. Flexibility means the firm’s ability to change its capital structure as per the changing circumstances. That is, the company should be in a position to raise funds, without undue delay and cost, whenever needed, to finance the profitable investments.


The investors may also like to add a premium with reference to other factors. One such factor may be the liquidity or marketability of the investment. Higher the liquidity available with an investment, lower would be the premium demanded by the investor. If the investment is not easily marketable, then the investors may add a premium for this also and consequently demand a higher rate of return. Despite its higher cost , equity financing is attractive because it does not create a default risk to the company. Also, equity financing may offer an easier way to raise a large amount of capital, especially if the company does not have extensive credit established with lenders.

Financial Institutions also influence or affecting the capital structure to a large extent. The small-sized institutions have limited credit and hence they have to depend more on share capital. If the institution has future plans, then it has to keep my amount of authorized capital, so that it may be issued in the future, at the time of need. Hence, while planning and formulating it, all those factors and elements should be well considered, which affects it. Given a variety of competing investment alternatives, buyers are anticipated to place their capital to work in order to maximize the return.

Therefore, to take the advantages of trading on equity, management uses more loan capital in the capital structure which helps in increasing the income of the shareholders. From Table 1 it is clear that by use of 6% debentures, the profit available for equity shareholders is Rs.33,000 and by using 6% preferred stock, this income is only Rs.6000. Thus, ordinary shareholders have an additional income of Rs.27,000 (Rs.33,000- Rs.6,000) due to income tax.

What Does the Cost of Capital Tell You?

When earnings are retained, the shareholders are forced to forego such return. Hence, the expected return foregone by the shareholders on forgone dividends may be treated as the cost of retained earnings. The company, by retaining the profits, prohibits the shareholder from earnings these returns.

E.g. suppose that a company has an amount of Rs. 100,000 which may either be utilised for purchasing a machine or may be invested with a bank as fixed deposit carrying the interest 10% p.a. Cost of capital can be used to evaluate the financial performance of the capital projects. Such evaluations can be done by comparing actual profitability of the project undertaken with the actual cost of capital or funds raised to finance the project. If the actual profitability of the project is more than the actual cost of capital, the performance can be evaluated as satisfactory. A dividend policy of a corporation decides how much percentage of profits it will retain and how much will be distributed as dividends. If a company retains a higher percentage of profits in the business, it effectively adds capital at the cost of equity.

equity share capital

What’s appropriate depends on the characteristics of the company and the standard of value being applied. An increase in the rates of Corporate tax issue of debenture in place of shares is regarded as more appropriate. When the income of the institution is uncertain then equity shares should be issued. In those Institutions, where capital gearing ratio is high, equity shares have the possibility of speculations.

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On the other hand, if the market conditions are such that it is expected to get a high and secured return, then the risk will be lower and obviously the cost of capital is expected to be less. It is the cost which has already been incurred for financing a particular project. The weighted average cost of capital is the combined cost of each component of funds employed by the firm.

The retained earnings do not involve any of such obligations, either, formal or implied. If the debt content in the capital structure of a company exceeds the optimum level, the investors start considering the company as too risky and their expectations from equity shares increase. Besides the above, there are external factors- economic conditions, tax considerations, market conditions and marketability of securities that affect the cost of capital.

Cost of capital is outlined because the financing prices a company has to pay when borrowing cash, utilizing fairness financing, or promoting bonds to fund an enormous venture or investment. In each case, the cost of capital is expressed as an annual interest rate, corresponding to 7%. A firm’s WACC can be used to estimate the expected prices for all of its financing. This consists of payments made on debt obligations , and the required price of return demanded by ownership . In many organizations value of capital serves because the discount fee for discounted money move evaluation.

This rate is often referred to as the weighted average cost of capital . It equals the speed of return on a challenge or investment with comparable danger. A company’s cost of capital is the rate of return the company would earn if it invested its capital in an organization of equal threat.

Firm size has been empirically found to be strongly positively related to capital structure. On the other hand small size business firms capital structure generally consists of loans from banks and retained profits. The operating profit should not only cover the interest payments, it should also be sufficient to meet routine obligations and expenditures.